Journal of Energy and Natural Resources

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Research Article |

Determinants of Adoption of Improved Cookstoves in the Dundori Forest Adjacent Community, Kenya

Improved cookstove programs worldwide are characterized by low success due to low adoption rates. However, there is a lack of detailed analysis of factors affecting the adoption of improved cookstoves in specific socioecological contexts, including in forest-adjacent communities. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the factors affecting the adoption of improved cookstoves in the Dundori Forest-adjacent community. This study used a descriptive study design and a multistage sampling design. Data analysis was performed using thematic analysis, descriptive statistics, Kendall’s coefficient, Mann-Kendall Z-Test, and regression analysis. We found that most households (99.2%) use firewood and charcoal for cooking. In addition, only 25.5% of the households use improved cookstoves, and they are used once per week on average which indicates low adoption. There was a significant negative trend in the availability of firewood (τb = 0.878**, P<0.01) and charcoal (τb = 0.927**, P <0.01). The use of improved cookstoves had a significant negative relationship with the use of firewood (β = - 0.687, P<0.05) and charcoal (β = - 0.153, P<0.05). The adoption of improved cookstoves was affected by various factors including gender (β1 = - 0.618 ± 1.049, P < 0.05), level of formal education (β1 = 0.347 ± 1.049, P < 0.05), and training on efficient and clean energy (β1 = 1.990 ± 1.049, P < 0.05). The study will inform policies, plans, and programs that effectively promote the adoption of improved cookstoves and enhance their benefits.

Adoption, Biomass Fuel, Energy, Firewood, Forest Adjacent Community, Improved Cookstove

APA Style

Kaua, C. G., Gitonga, T. M. (2024). Determinants of Adoption of Improved Cookstoves in the Dundori Forest Adjacent Community, Kenya. Journal of Energy and Natural Resources, 13(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jenr.20241301.11

ACS Style

Kaua, C. G.; Gitonga, T. M. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Cookstoves in the Dundori Forest Adjacent Community, Kenya. J. Energy Nat. Resour. 2024, 13(1), 1-10. doi: 10.11648/j.jenr.20241301.11

AMA Style

Kaua CG, Gitonga TM. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Cookstoves in the Dundori Forest Adjacent Community, Kenya. J Energy Nat Resour. 2024;13(1):1-10. doi: 10.11648/j.jenr.20241301.11

Copyright © 2024 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Bonjour, S., Adair-Rohani, H., Wolf, J., Bruce, N., Mehta, S., Prüss-Ustün, A., et al., 2013. Solid fuel use for household cooking: country and regional estimates for 1980–2010. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121, 784–790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205987
2. United Nations Development Program (UNDP). (2007). Will tomorrow be brighter than today? Addressing gender concerns in energy for poverty reduction in the Asia Pacific region. Regional Energy Programme for Poverty Reduction (REP-PoR). New York: United National Development Programme. https://www.undp.org/sites/g/files/zskgke326/files/migration/asia_pacific_rbap/RBAP-EE-2006-Will-Tomorrow-Be-Brighter-than-Today.pdf
3. International Energy Agency (IEA). (2014), Africa Energy Outlook 2014, IEA, Paris. https://www.iea.org/reports/africa-energy-outlook-2014
4. Nzengya, D. M., Maina Mwari, P., Njeru, C. (2021). Barriers to the Adoption of Improved Cooking Stoves for Rural Resilience and Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Kenya. In: Oguge, N., Ayal, D., Adeleke, L., da Silva, I. (eds.), African Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-45106-6_133
5. Palit, D., and Bhattacharyya, S. (2014). Adoption of cleaner cookstoves: Barriers and way forward. In, K. Hirji, C. Ray, and M. Clifford, (Eds.), Barriers to cookstoves. Boiling Point, Hedon Household Energy Network. https://www.iea.org/reports/world-energy-outlook-2012
6. International Energy Agency (IEA). (2012), World Energy Outlook 2012, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/world-energy-outlook-2012.
7. Shankar, A., Johnson, M., Kay, E., Pannu, R., Beltramo, T., Derby, E., Harrell, S.; Davis, C., Petach, C. (2014). Maximizing the benefits of improved cookstoves: moving from acquisition to correct and consistent use. Global Health Science and Practice, 2(3), 268-274. https://doi.org/10.9745/GHSP-D-14-00060
8. International Energy Agency (IEA), International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), World Bank, and World Health Organization (WHO). (2019). Tracking SDG 7: The Energy Progress Report 2019. Washington DC, World Bank. https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2019/May/2019-Tracking-SDG7-Report.pdf?rev=30fdda95ad074b6eb27c8aa4347605e8
9. Naeher, L. P., Brauer, M., Lipsett, M., Zelikoff, J. T., Simpson, C. D., Koenig, J. Q., Smith, K. R. (2007). Wood smoke health effects: a review. Inhalation Toxicology, 19 (1), 67–106. https://doi.org/10.1080/08958370600985875
10. Pant, K. P., Pattanayak, S. K., Thakuri, M. B. (2014). Climate change, cookstoves, and coughs and colds: thinking global and acting locally in rural Nepal. In: Barrett, S., Maler, K., Maskin, E. S. (Eds.), Environment and Development Economics, first ed. Oxford University Press, pp. 145e168. https://www.scottbarrett.org/environment-and-development
11. Smith, K. R., Metha, S., Maeusezahl-Feuz, M. (2004). Indoor smoke from household solid fuels. In: Ezzati, M., Rodgers, A. D., Lopez, A. D., Murray, C. J. L. (Eds.), Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease due to Selected Major Risk Factors, vol. 2. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp. 1435–1493. https://www.scirp.org/(S(czeh2tfqw2orz553k1w0r45))/reference/references papers. aspx?referenceid=1997874
12. Ines, G., Bruce, H., and Bonjour, S. (2009). The energy access situation in developing countries: A Review focusing on the least developed countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. WHO, UNDP. https://cleancooking.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/32-1.pdf
13. Warkaw, L. (2011). Factors Affecting the Adoption of Fuel-Efficient Stoves among Rural Households in Borena Woreda: North central Ethiopia. International Journal of Energy Science, 4(5), 141-154. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajaees%2F2020%2Fv38i730378
14. Niyonshuti, E., and Mushinzimana, I. (2021). Socio-economic Aspects Influencing Rural Household Adoption of Improved Clean Cook Stoves Case Study: Rwanda. American Journal of Modern Energy. 7(4), 45-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.ajme.20210704.11
15. Jan, I. (2012). What makes people adopt improved cookstoves? Empirical evidence from rural northwest Pakistan. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 16(5), 3200-3205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.02.038
16. Lambe, F., Jürisoo, M., Wanjiru, H., & Senyagwa, J. (2015). Bringing clean, safe, affordable cooking energy to households across Africa: An agenda for action Stockholm Environment Institute. Stockholm and Nairobi, for the new climate economy. https://newclimateeconomy.report/workingpapers/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2016/04/NCE-SEI-2015-Transforming-household-energy-sub-Saharan-Africa.pdf
17. Njenga, M., Mahmoud, Y., Mendum, R., Iiyama, M., Jamnadass, Roing de Nowina K., & Sundberg, C. (2017). Quality of charcoal produced using micro gasification and how the new cook stove works in rural Kenya. Environmental Research Letters, 12, 095001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa7499
18. Mercado, I., Masera, O., Zamora, H., and Smith, K. (2011). Adoption and sustainable use of cookstoves. Energy Policy, 39(2011), 7557-7566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.03.028
19. Karlsson, G. (2014). Where energy is women’s business. ENERGIA, Leusden, Netherlands. https://www.ecolex.org/details/literature/where-energy-is-womens-business-mon-079698/
20. Okuthe, I., and Akotsi, E. (2014). Adoptions of Improved Biomass Cook Stoves by Households: an Example from Homabay County. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(9), 191-206. https://asset-pdf.scinapse.io/prod/2183129500/2183129500.pdf
21. Bhattacharya, S. C. & Salam, A. P. (2006) A review of selected biomass energy technologies: gasification, combustion, carbonization, and densification. A publication of the Asian Regional Research Programme in Energy, Environment, and Climate (ARRPEEC). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258053064_A_Review_of_Selected_Biomass_Energy_Technologies_Gasification_Combustion_Carbonization_and_Densification
22. Johnson, M., Edwards, R., Alatorre, C., Masera, O. R. (2008). In-field greenhouse gas emissions from cookstoves in rural Mexican households. Atmospheric Environment, 42(6): 1206–1222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.034
23. Njenga, M., Iiyama, M., Jamndass, R., Helander, H., Larsson, L., de Leeuw, J., Sundberg, C. (2016). Gasifier as a cleaner cooking system in rural Kenya. Journal of Cleaner Production. 121, 208-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.01.039
24. Masera, O. R., Díaz, R., Berrueta, V. (2005). From cookstoves to cooking systems: the integrated program on sustainable household energy use in Mexico. Energy for Sustainable Development, 9(5): 25–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0973-0826(08)60480-9
25. Gitau, K. J., Mutune, J., Sundberg, C., Mendum, R., and Njenga, M. (2019). Factors influencing the adoption of biochar-producing gasifier cookstoves by households in rural Kenya. Energy for Sustainable Development, 52(2019), 63-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2019.07.006
26. Clark, M. L., Peel, J. L., Burch, J. B., Nelson, T. L., Robinson, M. M., Conway, S., Bachand, A. M., Reynolds, S. J. (2009). Impact of improved cookstoves on indoor air pollution and adverse health effects among Honduran women. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 19(5), 357-368. https://doi.org/10.1080/09603120902842705
27. Alexander, D., Callihan Linnes, J., Bolton, S., Larson, T. (2014). Ventilated cookstoves associated with improvements in respiratory health-related quality of life in rural Bolivia. Journal of Public Health, 36 (3), 460-466. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdt086
28. Berrueta, V., Serrano-Medrano, M., Garcia-Bustamante, C., Astler, M., Masera, O. (2015). Promoting sustainable local development of rural communities and mitigating climate change: the case of Mexico’s Patsari improved cookstove project. Climate Change, 140, 63-77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-015-1523-y
29. Sheha, A., and Makame, O. (2017). Adoption of the new highly efficient cooking stoves by urban households in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 9(11), 320-327. https://doi.org/10.5897/JDAE2017.0854
30. Bahta, G. (2012). Adoption Determinants of Improved Cook Stove Among Rural Households: The Case of Benishngul Gumuz Regional State, Ethiopia. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy, 10(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.10.09.2020.p10587
31. McNulty, E., Nielsen, T., and Zeller, M. (2017). Smallholder Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Cookstoves in Dedza, Malawi. American Journal of Rural Development, 5(3), 73-80. https://doi.org/10.12691/ajrd-5-3-3
32. Shen, G., Lin, W., Chen, Y., Yue, D., Liu, Z., & Yang, C. (2015). Factors Influencing the Adoption and Sustainable Use of Clean Fuels and Cookstoves in China—A Chinese Literature Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 51, 741-750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.06.049
33. Karanja, A., and Gasparatos, A. (2019). Adoption and impacts of clean bioenergy cookstoves in Kenya. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 102(2019), 285-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.12.006
34. Watson, J., Byrne, R., Opazo, J., Tsang, F., Morgan-Jones, M., and Diepeveen, S. (2011). What are the major barriers to increased use of modern energy services among the world’s poorest people and are interventions to overcome these effective? CEE protocol 11-004. Collaboration for Environmental Evidence: www.environmentalevidence.org/ SR11004.html.
35. Kanangire, R., Mbabazize, M., Shukia, J., and Wanderi, E. (2016). Determinants of adoption of improved biomass stoves in rural improved biomass stoves in rural households of the Muhazi sector in Rwamagana District. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 5(6), 201 – 223. https://europub.co.uk/articles/determinants-of-adoption-of-improved-biomass-stove-in-rural-households-of-muhazi-sector-in-rwamagana-district-A-10812
36. Yip, F., Christensen, B., Sircar, K., Naeher, L., Bruce, N., Pennise, D., Lozier, M., Pilishvili, T., Farrar, J., Stanistreet, D., Nyagol, R., Muoki, J., de Beer, L., Sage, M., and Kapil, V. (2017). Assessment of traditional and improved stove use on household air pollution and personal exposures in rural western Kenya. Environment International, 99(2017), 185-191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2016.11.015
37. Githiomi, J. K., and Oduor, N. (2012). Strategies for sustainable wood fuel production in Kenya. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2(10). https://fornis.net/sites/default/files/documents/Strategies%20for%20sustaibale%20wood%20fuel%20production%20in%20Kenya.pdf
38. Drigo, R., Bailis, R., Ghilardi, A., & Masera, O. (2015). WISDOM Kenya: Analysis of wood fuel supply, demand, and sustainability in Kenya. Washington DC, Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves. https://cleancookingalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/426-1.pdf
39. Smith, K. R., Bruce, N., Balakrishnan, K., Adair-Rohani, H., Balmes, J., Chafe, Z., & Rehfuess, E. (2014), Millions dead: how do we know and what does it mean? Methods used in the comparative risk assessment of household air pollution. Annual review of public health, 35, 185-206. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182356
40. Karanja, A., and Gasparatos, A. (2020). Adoption of improved biomass stoves in Kenya: a transect-based approach in Kiambu and Murang’a counties. Environmental Research Letters, 15(2020) 024020. http://www.gasparatos-lab.org/uploads/7/6/6/1/76614589/karanja_2020_environ._res._lett._15_024020.pdf
41. Onyekuru, N., and Apeh, C. (2017). Assessing the Use and Determinants of Households' Adoption of Improved Cook Stove in Nigeria: Empirical Evidence from Enugu State. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, 5(1), 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.9734/AJEE/2017/35281
42. Damte, A. and Koch, F., S. (2011). Clean fuel saving technology adoption in urban Ethiopia. Energy economics, 36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2012.11.003
43. Tigabu, (2014), Factors Affecting Adoption of Improved Cookstoves in Rural Areas Evidence from ‘Mirt’ Injera Baking Stove the Survey of Dembecha Woreda, Amhara Regional State Ethiopia. https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/4491
44. Kisiangani, B., Okoti, M., Mutembei, H., Wamalwa, P., and Mandila, B. (2022). Assessing the Demand for Improved Cook Stoves among Low-Income Households in Kenya: Case of Baringo and West Pokot Counties. Modern Economy, 12, 1139-1155. https://doi.org/10.4236/me.2022.138060
45. Sulo T, Koech P, Chumo C, Chepng’eno W. (2012) Socioeconomic Factors affecting the adoption of improved agricultural technologies among women in Marakwet County Kenya. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economic Management Sciences, (4): 312–7. https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC126579
46. Rehfuess EA., Puzzolo, E., Stanistreet, D., Pope, D., and Bruce NG. (2014). Enablers and barriers to large-scale uptake of improved solid fuel stoves: a systematic review. Environmental Health Perspectives. 122(2), 120–130. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306639
47. Gebreyohanes TG, Bahiigwa G, Tefera W. (2015). Impacts of fuel-efficient improved cooking stove on biomass collection and consumption in rural Ethiopia. IFPRI. https://www.tropentag.de/2015/abstracts/links/Tefera_GMUZQtoU.pdf
48. Lewis JJ, Pattanayak SK (2012). Who adopts improved fuels and cookstoves? A systematic review. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(5), 637–45. https://doi.org/10.1289%2Fehp.1104194
49. Eshetu, A. (2014). Factors Affecting the Adoption of Fuel-Efficient Stoves among Rural Households in Borena Woreda: North central Ethiopia. International Journal of Energy Science, 4(5). http://dx.doi.org/10.14355/ijes.2014.0405.01
50. Sehjpal, R, Ramji, A, Soni, A, and Kumar, A. (2014). Going beyond incomes: Dimensions of cooking energy transitions in rural India. Energy Policy, 68: 470-477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.01.071
51. Massawe, F. A., Bengesi, K., and Kweka, A. E. (2015). Household Awareness and Knowledge on Improved Cookstoves : A Case of Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. International Journal of. Physical and Social Sciences, 5(1): 457-478. https://www.suaire.sua.ac.tz/handle/123456789/2535
52. Massawe, F., and Bengesi, K. (2019). Determinants of Households’ Adoption of Improved Cook Stoves in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. The East African Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (EAJSSH), 1(1). http://www.suaire.sua.ac.tz/bitstream/handle/123456789/2997/Fatihiya%20A.%20Massawe%204.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
53. Ray, C., Clifford, M., and Jewitt, S. (2014). The introduction and uptake of improved cookstoves: Making sense of engineers, social scientists, barriers, markets, and participation. In, K. Hirji, C. Ray, and M. Clifford, (Eds.), Barriers to cookstoves. Boiling Point, Hedon Household Energy Network. https://dora.dmu.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/2086/11599/BP64-%20Barriers%20to%20Cookstoves%20.compressed.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
54. Arnold, M., Kohlin, G., Persson, R., Shepherd, G. (2003). Fuelwood Revisited: What Has Changed in the Last Decade? CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 39. CIFOR. https://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/OccPapers/OP-39.pdf
55. Masera, O. R., Saatkamp, B., Kammen, D., (2000). From Linear Fuel Switching to Multiple Cooking Strategies: a Critique and Alternative to the Energy Ladder Model. World Development, 28, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(00)00076-0
56. Troncoso, K., Castillo, A., Masera, O., and Merino, L. (2007). Social perceptions about technological innovation for fuelwood cooking: A case study in rural Mexico. Energy Policy, 35(2007), 2799-2810. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2006.12.011
57. Sesan, T. A. (2012). Navigating the limitations of energy poverty: Lessons from the promotion of improved cooking technologies in Kenya. Energy Policy, 47, 202–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.04.058