Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2018, Page: 92-102
Estimation of Households Fuelwood Consumption and Its Carbon Dioxide Emission: A Case Study on Adaba District South East Ethiopia
Alemayehu Zeleke Urge, Department of Natural Resource and Environmental Studies, Hawasa University, Wondogenet, Ethiopia
Motuma Tolera Feyisa, Department of Natural Resource and Environmental Studies, Hawasa University, Wondogenet, Ethiopia
Received: Nov. 13, 2018;       Accepted: Dec. 13, 2018;       Published: Jan. 23, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.jenr.20180704.11      View  233      Downloads  45
Abstract
Over 3 billion people throughout the world rely on traditional fuels such as fuelwood. In Ethiopia, 90 percent of energy consumption comes from biomass. Such heavy reliance on this form of energy is a threat to forest ecosystems and also contributes to greenhouse gas emission. However, empirical evidences on the amount of fuelwood consumption and emission of CO2 are limited. This study was carried out to assess amount of fuelwood consumption, factors affecting fuel wood consumption rate and contribution of fuelwood consumption to carbon dioxide emission, in Adaba district South Eastern Ethiopia. The study was based on questionnaire survey from 317 randomly selected households, focus group discussion and market survey. Multiple regressions were used to determine factors that influence fuelwood consumption rate and the amount of fuelwood consumed was estimated from the market survey using descriptive statistics. The result showed that average weekly fuelwood consumption was 0.2 (±0.1) and 0.09 (±0.07) tons in Kiremit and Bega seasons respectively. During winter season pressure on forest for fuelwood is comparatively lesser since there are other alternative sources of income. The result also showed that an estimated percapita emission of 2.08 tCO2e per year. The regression result reveals that, family size and total land size owned were found to be significant and positively correlated with the probability of fuel wood consumption rate. While total livestock unit was found to be significant and negatively correlated with the probability of fuel wood consumption rate. Furthermore, price of fuel wood and fuel wood availability were not found to be statistically significant. Focus group discussion and household survey revealed that, woody vegetation species like, Juniperus procera, Olea europaea and Erica arborea are the most preferred fuelwood species. In general distributing energy saving technology like ICS, family planning and using exotic tree species like, Eucalyptus for fuelwood is crucial to ensure sustainability and benefits of forest resources.
Keywords
Fuelwood, Carbon Dioxide Emission, Species Preference, Fuelwood Consumption
To cite this article
Alemayehu Zeleke Urge, Motuma Tolera Feyisa, Estimation of Households Fuelwood Consumption and Its Carbon Dioxide Emission: A Case Study on Adaba District South East Ethiopia, Journal of Energy and Natural Resources. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2018, pp. 92-102. doi: 10.11648/j.jenr.20180704.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Abebe Damte and Steven F. Koch (2011). Property Rights, Institutions and Source of Fuel Wood in Rural Ethiopia Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, South Africa
[2]
Abebe Damte, Steven F. Koch, and Alemu Mekonnen, (2012). Coping with Fuel wood Scarcity: Household Responses in Rural Ethiopia Environment for Development.
[3]
Abaynesh Kebede, Achalu Chimdi and Akhila S. Nair, (2015). Effect of Firewood Energy Consumption of Households on Deforestation in Debis Watershed Ambo District, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Ambo University, College of Computational and Natural Sciences, P. O. Box: 19, Ambo, Ethiopia
[4]
Abreham T (2008). Ethno botanical Study of Desa’a Forest, North-Eastern Escarpment of Ethiopia, with Emphasis on use and management of forest by the local people. M. Sc. Thesis Addis Abeba University.
[5]
Aklilu Ameha (2002). Integrated Forest Management Project Adaba-Dodola,, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[6]
Alden Wily (2003). From meeting needs to honoring rights: the evolution of Community forestry. In Proceedings of XII World forestry congress, Quebec City, Canada. FAO, Rome.
[7]
Alemu, Mekonnen and Gunnar Kohlin (2008). Determinants of Household Fuel Choice in Major Cities in Ethiopia.
[8]
Arnold, M., Köhlin, G., Persson, R. & Shepherd, G. (2003). Fuel wood Revisited: What has Changed MME (Ministry of Mines & Energy of Ethiopia), 2003. Energy Policy of Ethiopia, power point presentation Japan International Cooperation. www.eneken.ieej.or.jp/data/3230.pdf, accessed on, August, 2015.
[9]
Alemneh Dejene (2003). The Nexus of Natural Resource Degradation, Food Security and Poverty In the Ethiopian Highlands: Towards Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development in The Ethiopian Highlands, pp 13-16 (FAO). FAO Corporate Document Repository Rome.
[10]
Asress W/Giorgis. (2002). Overview of Energy States and Trends in Ethiopia. Energy in Ethiopia: Status, Challenges and Prospects. Proceedings of Energy Conference 2002. Professional Associations’ Joint Secretariat UNCC, Addis Ababa, 21-22 March 2002.
[11]
Bailis, R., Ezzati, M., Kammen, D. (2005). Mortality and greenhouse gas impacts of biomass and petroleum energy futures in Africa. Science 308: 98–103.
[12]
Bownder, B. (1987). Environmental Problems in Developing Countries: Progress in Physical Geography 2: 246-259
[13]
Bekele Melaku. (2003). Forest property rights, the Role of the State, and Institutional Exigency: The Ethiopian experience.
[14]
Bedru, B. (2007). Economic valuation and management of common-pool resources: the case of exclosure in the highlands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, PhD dissertation.
[15]
Bereket Kebede (2000). Modern Energy and the urban poor in Ethiopia. African Energy policy Research Network. Nairobi, Kenya.
[16]
Bonjour, S. et al. (2010). Solid fuel use for household cooking: Country and regional estimates for (1980_2010) Environ. Health Prospect.
[17]
Bhim Adhikari, Salvatore Di Falco, Jon C. Lovett (2003). Household characteristics and forest dependency: evidence from common property forest management in Nepal, Center for Ecology, Law and Policy, Environment Department, University of York, Hesling.
[18]
Bradstock, A., Hovland, I., Altshul, H., Crafter, S., Irwin, B., Kaberia, B., Odhiambo, Temesgen, Z and Sultan, J. (2007). From grass roots to government: FARM-Africa’s Experiences influencing policy in sub-Saharan Africa. Policy and research series 5. London: FARM Africa and the Overseas Development Institute.
[19]
Bailis, R., Ezzati, M., Kammen, D. (2005). Mortality and greenhouse gas impacts of biomass and Petroleum energy futures in Africa. Science 308: 98–103.
[20]
CSA (2008). Summary and Statistical Report of the 2007 Population and Housing Census.
[21]
David. J Idiata, Mitchell Ebiogbe, Henry Oriakhi, and Osazuwa. L Iyalekhue, (2013). Wood Fuel Usage and the Challenges on the Environment: International Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2(4). Pps: 110-114.
[22]
Dawit, H., (2010). Ethiopian energy systems: Potentials, Opportunities and Sustainable utilization MSc. Thesis Uppsala University, Sweden.
[23]
EPA. (1998). National action Programme to combat desertification. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[24]
FAO. (2010). Global forest resources assessment 2010: Main report, Rome, Italy.
[25]
FAO. (2008). http://www.fao.org/copyright-en.htm Accessed on 29-7-2015.
[26]
Kubsa, A. (2002). The proceedings of a forest conservation workshop held in Finfine. IFMP. Adaba-Dodola.
[27]
National Clean Cook stoves Programme Ethiopia (NCCSPE, 2011). Road map.
[28]
Ethiopia Climate-Resilient Green Economy, (2011). Green economy strategy: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
[29]
Eshete, G., Sonder, K., &Heedge, R. (2006). Report on the feasibility study of a national program for domestic biogas in Ethiopia. SNV.
[30]
EPA (2003). State of Environment Report in Ethiopia: The Federal democratic republic of Ethiopia Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[31]
EPA/UNEP (2008). Ethiopian Environment Outlook: Environment for Development. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[32]
Ezzati, M. and Kammen, D. (2002). Household energy, indoor air pollution and public health: Research and policy needs in developing countries. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment7: 1 38.
[33]
Ethiopia Ministry of agriculture, natural resources management and regulatory department (1998). In proceeding of sub- regional workshop on forestry statistics IGAD region, Nakuru. Kenya, 12-16 October 1998.
[34]
Fisher, R., Prabhu, R., and McDougall. (2007). Adaptive collaborative management of Community forests in Asia, “Experience from Nepal, Indonesia and the Philippines”, Centre for International Forest Research, Indonesia.
[35]
Gebreslassie Teklay, Hagos Gebraslassie and Abraham Mehari (2014). Assessing Households’ Fuel Wood Tree Species Preference: The Case of Desa’a Afro Alpine Forest, Tigray Natural resource management department, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia.
[36]
Girma, A. (2005.). Rehabilitation and sustainable use of degraded community forests in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia: Inaugural Dissertation Faculty of Forest and Environmental Sciences, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Freiburg imBreisgau, Germany.
[37]
Getachew Olana (2002). Some Socio-Economic Aspects of Biomass Energy in Ethiopia: Revie Energy in Ethiopia: Status, Challenges and Prospects. -Proceedings of Energy Conference 2002. Professional Associations’ Joint Secretariat UNCC, Addis Ababa, 21-22 March 2002.
[38]
Geist, H. J., and Lambin, E. F. (2001). What Drives Deforestation? A Meta-analysis and Underlying Causes of Deforestation based on Sub national Case Study EvidenceCiao Printshop, Louvaine-la Neuve.
[39]
IFMP. 1999. Project Synopsis 1999. Integrated Forest Management Project Adaba-Dodola (IFMP), Dodola. 15 pp Mangat R. (2009): Energy and environment Management Journal- April Issue 2009.
[40]
Kammen, D, Bailis, R, and Ezzati M., (2005). Impacts of Biomass and Petroleum Energy Futures in Africa. SCIENCE MAGAZINE, 1 APRIL 2005 VOL 308, PP. 98-103.
[41]
Kanninen, M., Murdiyarso, D., Seymour, F., Angelsen, A., Wunder, S. and German, L. (2007) Do trees on money? The implications of deforestation research for Policies to promote REDD.
[42]
Mekonnen, A. (2012). Coping with Fuel wood Scarcity: Household Responses in Rural Ethiopia Resources For the Future.
[43]
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. (2003). Ecosystems and human well-being: a framework for assessment. Island Press, Washington DC.
[44]
Makhado, von Maltitz,. G. (2009). Contribution of Woodland Products to Rural Livelihoods in the Northeast of Limpopo Province, South Africa: South African Geographical Journal No. 91(1).
[45]
MME Ministry of Mines and Energy (2013). Energy Resources Potential of Ethiopia Energy Development, Follow-up and Expansion Department April, 2009 Addis.
[46]
Motalembert M. R. And Cle’mt J. (1983), FAO Forestry Paper 42. Fuel wood supply in developing countries.
[47]
Mayer-Leixner, G. (1998). Problems of energy supply in rural areas of developing countries.
[48]
Norgaard, R. B. (2007): Finding Hope in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Energy and Resources Group. Barrows Hall, University of California.
[49]
NijebMuhamad (2008). Impact of ‘Katikala’ Production on the Degradation of Woodland Vegetation and Emission of CO and PM during Distillation in Arsi-NegeleDistrict, Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia.
[50]
Osei, W. Y. (1993). Wood fuel and deforestation—answers for a sustainable environment. Journal of Environmental Management 37: 51–62.
[51]
Pokharel, Ridish K. (2008), Pro poor program of Nepal’s Community Forestry: Who Benefits?
[52]
Parikka, M. (2004). Global biomass fuel resources. Biomass and Bioenergy 27: 613–620. Palmer Development Group, 1997b Palmer Development Group, Gender Review of the GTZ/DME Solar Cooker Field Test, GTZ, Pretoria (1997).
[53]
Pachauri S., Mueller, A., Kemmler, A. and D. Spreng (2006), ‘On measuring energy poverty in Indian households’, World Development 32(12): 2083-2104
[54]
Ram Chandra Khanal and Leena Bajracharya (2012). Improved Cooking Stove (ICS) and Its Impact on Firewood Consumptions and Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emission: A Case Study from TMJ Area, Nepal IUCN Nepal, PO Box 3923, Kathmandu.
[55]
Robecca Toole (2015). The Energy Ladder: A Valid Model for Household Fuel Transitions in Sub-Saharan Africa.
[56]
Sylvie, D. emurger, Martin Fournier (2011). Poverty and Fuel wood consumption: A case study of rural Households in Northern China. China Economic Review, Elsevier, 2011, 22 (4), pp. 512-523.
[57]
Seidel A. (2008). Charcoal in Africa, Importance, problems and possible strategies. GTZ Energy in Sub Saharan Africa.
[58]
Shackle ton, C. M. ( 2004). Assessment of livelihoods: Importance of forestry, forests and forest products in South Africa. Rhodes University, Grahams town.
[59]
Struhsaker, T. T. (1997). Ecology of an African Rain Forest. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
[60]
Schult, D. (2008). Participatory Forest Management and the Improvement of Rural Livelihoodsin East Africa: The Case Study of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia and the Transferability to the Kakamega Forest, Kenya.
[61]
Schwarz, Norbert. ( 1996). Cognition and communication: Judgmental biases, research methods, and the logic of Conversation. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associate.
[62]
Muhammad Hamayun, SumeraAfzal Khan and Abdul LatifKhan (2013). Wood as a Fuel Source in the Hindukush: A Case Study of Utror and Gabral Valleys, Northen Pakistan.
[63]
Stéphane Couture, Serge Garciaand Arnaud Reynaud (2010). Household Energy Choices and Fuelwood Consumption: An Econometric Approach to the French Data.
[64]
Sushenjit Bandyopadhyay and PriyaShyamsundar (2010). Fuelwood Consumption and Participation in Community Forestry in India.
[65]
Terefe, D., (2003). Factors Affecting People’s Participation in Participatory Forest Managementnt: The case of integrated forest management programAdaba-Dodola in Bale Zone, Oromia Region. MSc. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
[66]
UN. (2005). Global financial crisis endangering forest worldwide report.
[67]
UNFCCC, (2013). available at http://cdm.unfccc.int/Reference/Documents.
[68]
World Bank, (2011). ‘Household Cook stoves, Environment, Health, and Climate Change: worldbank.org/content/cook stoves-report.
[69]
Elisabeth, D., Martin, H., Louis, V., Robert, M and Ben, D. V. 2014. Fuelwood Savings and Carbon Emission Reductions by the Use of Improved Cooking Stoves in an Afromontane Forest, Ethiopia. Land 3, 1137-1157 (http://www. www.mdpi.com/journal/land/).
[70]
Zenebe Gebreegziabher, Alemu Mekonnen, Menale Kassie, and Köhlin G. (2010). Urban energy transition and technology adoption: The case of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Discussion paper EfD 10(22). Environment for Development (EfD) Initiative, and Resources for the Future (RFF), Washington, DC.
Browse journals by subject